Hurricane Katrina was a tale of threeÂ disasters. The first was natural, a violent storm that devastated the Gulf Coast. The second was man-made, the catastrophic failure of levees protectingÂ New Orleans. Together, these disastersÂ killed more than 1,800 people and displacedÂ half a million families. Damages ran into the billions, and the recovery continues even now.
The third was also man-made, and the most maddening: the failure of preparation, logistics, and actionÂ at every level. The Federal Emergency Management AgencyÂ drew widespread criticism for a slow, disorganized response that bordered on incompetence, and its poor communication and coordination with local and state authorities.
If such a disaster occurred today, FEMA insists it would respond swiftly and efficiently. It points to the leadership of Craig Fugate, whom President Obama tapped to headÂ the agency in 2009. Fugate, unlike hisÂ much-maligned predecessor Michael Brown, is a formerÂ director of the Florida Emergency Management Division and has extensive experience managing disasters responses, particularly hurricanes.
No less importantly, FEMA has embraced key reforms, not the least of which is the authority to act immediately. Until 10 years ago, the agency had to awaitÂ a governor's request for federal aid before jumping in.
"One of the most important improvements we've made came as a result of congressional action to authorize FEMA to deploy resources to states before a presidential declaration request has even been made," says Ted Okada, the agency's chief technology officer. "If FEMA believes that a situation will require a presidential disaster declaration, we're now authorized to expend funds out of the Stafford Act to prepare. By pre-staging resources such as water, generators, and staff, we're able to faster mobilize response efforts."
FEMA hasn't faced a test quite like Katrina, but its ability to move quickly has changed how it responds. Even before Hurricane Sandy pummeled New York in October, 2012, FEMA deployedÂ truckloads of food, water, generators and other supplies. Some 900 employees were standing by, primed to provide any assistance once the storm made landfall.
A post-Sandy audit by the Department of Homeland Security, which oversees FEMA, gave the agency top marks. â€œFEMA prepared well for this disaster, overcame operational and staffing challenges, quickly resolved resource shortfalls, made efficient disaster sourcing decisions, and coordinated its activities effectively with State and local officials,â€ concluded the report. State and local officials, including New Jersey governor Chris Christie and New York senator Chuck SchumerÂ offered similarly positive reviews.
The change in attitude and policy proved instrumental in setting FEMA on a new course. But technology played an equally important, if somewhat less obvious, role in how the agency and its counterparts at the state and local level, prepare for and respond to a crisis. These changes run the gamut from a comprehensive smartphone app to broader adoption of drones and robots.
The agency's embrace of new tech prompted it to formalize the role of CTO, consolidating roles held by various people before Okada came aboard. It was a wise move, given how quickly things have changed in the past decade.Â When Katrina hit, social media was in its infancy, people still got a lot of their news from television and radio, and Blackberry and Razr phones were state of the art. These days,Â 40 percent of Americans use their phones to access government services, and 68 percent of them use phones to keep track of breaking news events,Â according to the Pew Research Center.
â€œFEMA must be able to reach at-risk populations that get their information from Twitter and Facebook,â€ Okada says. â€œWe use social media as a platform to get information out, but also engage in widely distributed conversations. Better situational awareness allows us to improve decision making, leading to better survivor outcomes.â€
According to FEMA, the app has been downloaded more than 200,000 times since it launched in 2011, and the organization has hundreds of thousands of followers on Twitter and Facebook. Social media played a larger role than everÂ helping FEMA and local organizations communicate to residents during Hurricane Sandy. To combat false information on TwitterÂ during the storm and its aftermath, FEMA createdÂ a "Rumor Control" page and has done the same during more recent emergencies.
At the state level, disaster-response teams also are embracingÂ social media. Bryan Koon, director of the Florida Division of Emergency Management, says the agencyÂ has streamlined statewide communications during events and created a two-way street of communication.
"The technology of the last 10 years it has enhanced the information flow both to and from our stakeholders," Koon says. "Staff are watching Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and other social media so that we can craft our messages appropriately. We use it to gather information not just to push information out to the public."
Other changes since Katrina have helped FEMA disseminate information in creative ways. OpenFEMAÂ makes the organization's datasets available to app developers via APIs. Developers have used that data to create emergency dashboards to help cities prepare for the worst. FEMA has also created data-visualization tools with the datasets.
Changes in technology led to a fundamental change in how local, state and federal agencies communicate with each other. Take Louisiana, for example. The state created the Louisiana Governor's Office of Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness in 2006 to coordinate the response to a disaster—a task formerly left to state police and the National Guard. The change prompted more focused and efficient responses, which are led from theÂ State Emergency Operations Center in Baton Rouge, by bringing together local, state, and federal authorities.
Of course, making sure all those people can communicate in the field is no less important. During Katrina (and, for that matter, 9/11), first responders often found they couldn't talk to each other because different agencies had different communications systems. State and federal grants and other funding have allowed Louisiana to finance more than $180 million in communication upgrades that covers 79,000 first responders and 12 million push-to-talk messages monthly. The statewide system includes mobile communication towers, signal repeaters, satellite phones, generators and more.
Looking beyond communications technology, FEMA and its counterparts at the state and local level are embracing small robots and drones in search and rescue and damage-assessment operations. They're quick and easy to transport and deploy, and can reach places dogs, hominid and helicopters cannot hospital room present not go. book deployed drones during Katrina and relied upon actuation robots to see for be unfree inward buildings.
But the branch of knowledge has prettify to a greater extent common, and book get tight with the likes ofÂ the Center for Robot-Assisted see see and RescueÂ and itsÂ Roboticists Without Borders create mentally to reenforce upward the aright tools and be for the job.Â â€œI touch want once alphabetic character devastation happens, we're alphabetic character qualitative analysis service," says center on musician medical man thrush Murphy.
The branch of knowledge inward these robots has front importantly inward the large integer since Katrina; communication system connectedness systems square measure to a greater extent robust, picturing capabilities to a greater extent advanced, cameras to a greater extent advanced. We've as well seen the come back of plant life drones.Â â€œThe entity that we get it on like a shot that we didn't get it on and then that would get it on been extremely functional is the military personnel vehicles,â€ solanaceous vegetable says, noting that large integer proportionality of the world's settlement lives nearÂ water. â€œWhen you modify that we had however some miles of coastland, and whole the bridges, and of of course the levees.â€
Although or so states—including fresh milker and Texas—maintain their possess see and take robots, independent agency outsources much work. The waterway process of the technology, not to mention the cost, makes it impractical for the government to keep a fleet. A top-shelf search-and-rescue drone or robot can reach $70,000. "They don't want to think of it as a very expensive cell phone or computer that needs to be replaced in a few years,â€ Murphy says.
Besides, FEMA wants to focus on technology anyone can use in an emergency. The app, the open datasets, and the social Web are just the beginning. With a rapidly growing pool of data from "Internet of Things" devices—smart smoke detectors, fitness monitors, home appliances, and security cameras—Okada says the agency is exploring ways to analyze that "big data" pool in order to provide assistance in the future.
â€œWe will build appropriate and sustainable technology around the survivor and not the other way around,â€ Okada says. â€œWe will continue to focus on survivor-centric design. We'll always try to put ourselves in the mind of a survivor, whose world extends as far as they see, as far as they can hear, as far as they can walk.â€